Browsing by Subject "Outdoor secondhand smoke"
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Publisher and Date:(Academic Press Inc Elsevier Science, 2019)Significance: Secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure is a major cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of smoking in outdoor areas of public places in three largest Turkish cities (Istanbul Ankara and Izmir). Method: For this cross-sectional observational study the Turkish Statistical Institute randomly selected 10 sampling points in each city. Around each sampling point fieldworkers visited the closest bars/nightclubs cafes ...