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  • Income Inequality and FDI: Evidence with Turkish Data 

    This article explores how foreign direct investment (FDI) and other determinants impact income inequality in Turkey in the short- and long-run. We apply the nonlinear auto-regressive distributed lag (ARDL) modelling approach which is suitable for small samples. The data for the study cover the years from 1970 to 2008. The empirical results indicate the existence of a co-integration relationship among the variables with asymmetric adjustment of the income distribution in the short- and long-run. ...

  • The role of trade and FDI for CO2 emissions in Turkey: Nonlinear relationships 

    Authors:Haug, Alfred Albert; Ucal, Meltem
    Publisher and Date:(Elsevier, 2019)
    This paper examines the effects of foreign trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) on CO2 emissions in Turkey. We consider linear and nonlinear ARDL models and find significant asymmetric effects of exports, imports and FDI on CO2 emissions per capita. However, FD1 has no statistically significant long-run effects. In the long run, decreases in exports reduce CO2 emissions per capita but increases in exports have no statistically significant effects. Increases in imports push up CO2 emissions ...