Thiols malonaldehyde status in the Turkish and total antioxidant patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
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Non-insulin-dependent (Type 2) diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Oxidative stress mechanisms are often reported to be implied in type 2 diabetes mellitus. In order to determine their clinical relevance we investigated several plasma indicators in the Turkish patients with NIDDM: (1) homocysteine (Hey) and cysteine (Cys) which contribute to increase the risk of atherosclerosis during NIDDM (ii) glutathione (GSH) and cysteinylglycine (CysGly) resulting from GSH degradation catalyzed by gamma-glutamylcysteine transferase (GGT) (iii) malonaldehyde (MDA) as a marker for lipid peroxidation and (iv) total antioxidant status (TAS). Our main results were evaluated based on sex and diabetic status. In female patients plasma concentrations of MDA and Hey were significantly higher than in controls while GSH levels were significantly lower. In males a difference between control and diabetic groups was noticed only for Hey levels being also higher in patients. In the diabetic group increase in serum glucose concentration was significantly correlated with increased GGT activity. In both controls and diabetic patients GGT activity was correlated with a raised Cys concentration and a decreased GSH level. In both controls and diabetic patients there were significant positive correlations between Cys and Hey and between GSH and Hey. We concluded that GSH and MDA levels are clinical indicators for an oxidative process linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus especially in women.