Neo-Weberian historical sociology, the English School and differentiated integration in the E
This article explores the contributions of Neo-Weberian historical sociology of the state and the English School of International Relations theory to our understanding of differentiated integration in the European Union. In doing so, it turns to the English School concept of 'radial empires' to establish differentiation as a structural feature of all centralized entities in international society such as the European Union. It then turns to the concepts of 'sociospatial networks of power' and 'despotic vs. infrastructural' forms of state power from the Neo-Weberian literature to discuss why empires function radially. Subsequently, it links vertical differentiation to the interplay between sociospatial networks of power and horizontal differentiation to the interplay between despotic and infrastructural forms of state power in the member states of the European Union. Crucial insights for understanding differentiation can be gained from engagement with these concepts not least for understanding Brexit which links with the United Kingdom's particularly high infrastructural power.