Phase Shifting Properties of High-Pass and Low-Pass Mixed-Element Two-Ports
n many applications, circuits containing lumped-elements are preferred because of their small sizes. But it is not possible to avoid losses caused by the connections between lumped-elements at high frequencies. However, the use of these connections as circuit elements will improve the performance of the circuit. Therefore, it becomes inevitable to use circuits with mixed (lumped and distributed) elements at high frequencies. In this brief, phase shifting properties of high-pass and low-pass mixed-element two-ports is explained. Then these two-ports are used to form the initial design of high-pass and low-pass sections of a phase shifter. Finally, the initial design performance can be improved by means of commercially available computer-aided design (CAD) tools.