Identifying City Differences in Perceived Group Discrimination among Second-generation Turks and Moroccans in Belgium
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This study investigates the effects of city context on the levels and predictors of perceived group discrimination (GD) among Turkish and Moroccan second-generation immigrants in Belgium. Based on the Integration of the European Second-generation (TIES) data we address two main questions: (1) Are there significant differences in the levels of perceived GD between the two cities in Belgium (Antwerp and Brussels) within each immigrant group? (2) Who perceives more GD within each city? To answer these questions possible composition effects should be controlled. Accordingly we use propensity-score matching to make second-generation immigrant samples from the two cities reasonably comparable with respect to socio-demographic characteristics. Concerning the first research question we find that after propensity-score matching the Turkish second-generation perceive more GD in Antwerp than in Brussels. For the Moroccan group however the city differences in perceived GD are no longer significant after matching. With regards to the second research question we find that those who are more socio-economically integrated and those who perceive more threat in their city are more likely to perceive GD.