Show simple item record

dc.contributor.authorKaplan, Bekir
dc.contributor.authorGrau-Perez, Maria
dc.contributor.authorÇarkoğlu, Aslı
dc.contributor.authorErgör, Gül
dc.contributor.authorHayran, Mutlu
dc.contributor.authorNavas-Acien, Ana
dc.contributor.authorCohen, Joanna E.
dc.date.accessioned2019-06-28T11:11:08Z
dc.date.available2019-06-28T11:11:08Z
dc.date.issued2019
dc.identifier.issn139351
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12469/1471
dc.identifier.urihttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2019.05.003
dc.description.abstractSignificance: Secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure is a major cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of smoking in outdoor areas of public places in three largest Turkish cities (Istanbul Ankara and Izmir). Method: For this cross-sectional observational study the Turkish Statistical Institute randomly selected 10 sampling points in each city. Around each sampling point fieldworkers visited the closest bars/nightclubs cafes government buildings hospitals restaurants schools shopping malls traditional coffee houses universities children's playgrounds parks and open markets. We observed smoking ashtrays and cigarette butts at the outdoor areas of public venues within the urban districts of each city. The fieldwork was conducted in April–May 2016. Results: 477 venues were observed covering 1017 outdoor locations in which 17737 people were observed. Smoking in outdoor areas ranged from 3.7% around schools to 90% in open markets. Ashtrays were almost ubiquitous in hospitals (95.6%) shopping malls (92.0%) and universities (90.9%). Cigarette butts were more often observed in open markets (100%) shopping malls (96%) universities (95.5%) and parks (93.3%). Smoking at outdoor areas around schools was significantly lower than around other venues. Conclusion: Smoking in outdoor areas was common in most public places in Turkey except schools. The current indoor SHS legislation should be extended to cover adjacent outdoor areas of public venues in order to effectively protect people from SHS exposure in Turkey. © 2019 The Authors
dc.language.isoEnglish
dc.publisherAcademic Press Inc Elsevier Science
dc.rightsinfo:eu-repo/semantics/openAccessen_US
dc.subjectOutdoor secondhand smoke
dc.subjectTurkey
dc.titleSmoke-free Turkey: Evaluation of outdoor areas of public places
dc.typeArticle
dc.identifier.startpage79
dc.identifier.endpage83
dc.relation.journalEnvironmental Research
dc.identifier.volume175
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.envres.2019.05.003
dc.contributor.khasauthorÇarkoğlu, Aslı


Files in this item

Thumbnail

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record