Dependence on imported inputs and implications for technology transfer in Turkey
Trade and macroeconomic policies in Turkey evolved from import substitution to export promotion and liberalization of commodity and capital markets after 1980. During the 1980s and 1990s Turkey’s exports and imports and their shares in GDP demonstrated an increasing trend. The share of exports in GDP increased from 4.2% in 1980 to 20.3% in 2005 and that of imports rose from 11.4 to 32.2%. Import liberalization was accomplished during the second half of the 1990s and at around the same time direct price support for exports was abolished. © Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2012. All rights reserved.