Status of malondialdehyde, catalase and superoxide dismutase levels/activities in schoolchildren with iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia of Kashere and its environs in Gombe State, Nigeria
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Background: Iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) or iron deficiency (ID) is by far the most common form of disorder affecting the cognitive development, physical growth and school performance of children in developing countries including Nigeria. Objectives: In the present study, we aimed to examine whether IDA or ID, or both are associated with oxidative stress or otherwise by assessing the perturbations in oxidative stress markers including malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Methods: Here, a total of eighty-one IDA, ID, and healthy control subjects of twenty-seven replicates each, were recruited and investigated. Human serum MDA, CAT and SOD levels were quantitatively analyzed using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbant Assay. Results: Mean serum MDA levels of IDA (5.10 +/- 2.35 mmol/L) and ID (4.05 +/- 1.35 mmol/L) groups were found to perturb significantly (p < 0.05), being higher than those of control (3.30 +/- 0.95 mmol/L) subjects. Similarly, mean serum MDA levels of IDA (5.10 +/- 2.35 mmol/L) group was found to be significantly (p < 0.05) higher when compared with ID (4.05 +/- 1.35 mmol/L) subjects. Conversely, mean serum CAT and SOD activities of IDA (8.35 +/- 2.21 ng/mL and 340.70 +/- 153.65 ng/mL) group were found to differ significantly (p < 0.05), and those of ID (9.40 +/- 1.47 ng/mL and 435.00 +/- 144.75 ng/mL) subjects were found to perturb slightly (p > 0.05), being lower than those of control (10.40 +/- 4.31 ng/mL and 482.12 +/- 258.37 ng/mL) subjects. Conclusions: Taken together, the results of the present study showed that lipid peroxidation was dramatically increased in both IDA and ID subjects in hydroperoxide-superoxide-dependent manner; in contrast, enzymatic antioxidant capacity was drastically decreased in both IDA and ID groups as evidenced by biochemical markers.