Reduction of energy costs and traffic flow rate in urban logistics process
Energy cost is a phenomenon relating to logistics and transportation activities of logistics operators as well as governments local authorities and citizens. Actually all the logistics parties may be affected by energy costs. At the same time logistics and transportation flow rate is declining continuously. Increases in traffic volume and decreased logistics flow rate cause to decrease in logistics productivity and efficiency in a city. On the other hand changes in these factors cause to increase energy cost. Minimum energy consumption plays an important role for efficient and productive urban logistics operations. Increasing traffic volume and congestion may absorb the energy of cities in addition to that it causes to increase energy requirements of urban areas. According to scientific research a significant correlation can be seen between traffic volume congestion energy cost and using the urban economic resources. This study focus on relations between these factors and it tried to show that ways for reduction of energy cost on optimum traffic volume and traffic flow rate. In addition to that the findings of this study depend on fieldwork related to Istanbul city. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.