Lignite resources of Turkey: Geology reserves and exploration history
This article aims to emphasize the importance of lignite which is the mostly used domestic energy source in the Turkish energy mix by briefly overviewing its geology reserves and exploration. Lignites are distributed in mostly continental sedimentary basins of Tertiary age all over the country. The lignite-bearing basins display the characteristics of different geological settings of which grabens and half-grabens are the most common ones especially in western Anatolia. The geological and chemical characteristics of Turkish lignites do not only create some important problems during mining and coal preparation but also make them unfavorable for consumption. However since they are the most valuable energy resource of the country they should benefit the economy in the most efficient and environmentally friendly way. Moreover two most important conclusions of this study are as follows: firstly reserve estimation practices in the country should definitely be revised to provide a more realistic evaluation of the country's lignite potential for developing medium- and long-term energy strategies and policies for decision- and policy-makers. Secondly exploration and development activities should be coordinated by a single institution most likely a government institution as has been the case for some 50 years. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.