Nutrient Dynamics in Flooded Wetlands. II: Model Application
In this paper the authors applied and evaluated the wetland nutrient model that was described in Paper I. Hydrologic and water quality data from a small restored wetland located on Kent Island Maryland which is part of the Delmarva Peninsula on the eastern shores of the Chesapeake Bay was used for this purpose. The model was assessed through various methods against the observed data in simulating nitrogen (N) phosphorus (P) and total suspended sediment (TSS) dynamics. Time series plots of observed and simulated concentrations and loads generally compared wellbetter performance was demonstrated with dissolved forms of nitrogen i.e.ammonia and nitrate. Through qualitative and quantitative sensitivity analysis dominant processes in the study wetland were scrutinized. Nitrification plant uptake and mineralization were the most important processes affecting ammonia. Denitrification in the sediment layer and diffusion to bottom sediments were identified as key processes for nitrate. Settling and resuspension were the most important processes for particulate matter (organic N sediment) and sediment-bound phosphate (inorganic P). Order of parameter sensitivities and dominant processes exhibited seasonality. Uncertainty bands created from Monte Carlo simulations showed that parameter uncertainty is relatively smallhowever uncertainty in the wetland inflow rates and loading concentrations have much more bearing on model predictive uncertainty. N P and TSS mass balance analysis showed that the wetland removed approximately 23 33 and 46% respectively of the incoming load (runoff + atmospheric deposition) over the two-year period with more removal in year 1 (34 43 and 55% respectively) which had a long stretch of a dry period. The developed model can be employed for exploring wetland response to various climatic and input conditions and for deeper understanding of key processes in wetlands.
SourceJournal Of Hydrologic Engineering