State autonomy and neoliberal transition: A case study Turkey: 1980-2001
Much has been written about the neoliberal revolution that originated in the Northern countries in the 1970s and since then has spread to all countries in the world to a greater or lesser extent. The aim of this paper is to give an account of Turkey's relationship with neoliberalism between 1980 and 2001 which has been a rather troubled relationship. In this paper I argue that the neoliberal policies cannot be implemented in a state unless the class forces allow such an establishment. In spite of the fact that the military and the largest section of the bourgeoisie had a smooth alliance in the beginning of the liberalization period the Turkish state could not continue implementing the neoliberal project because of the conflicts the initial liberalization created between the capitalist classes and the resistances it invoked from the working classes which could have become threatening for the state due to the existence of a strong national liberation movement. So it is impossible to understand Southern governments' relationship with neoliberalism without taking into account the state's ever changing relationship with different segments of the population and its multiple roles as a territorial organization as well as a participant in the global capitalist economy.